Monday, 12 January 2009

MUSLIMS IN THE AMERICAS BEFORE COLUMBUS
by
Dr. Youssef Mroueh

Introduction
Numerous evidence suggests that Muslims from Spain and West Africa arrived in the Americas at least five centuries before Co1umbus.It is recorded, for example that in the mid-tenth century during therule of the Umayed Caliph Abdul-Rahman III (929-961), Muslims of African origin sailed west ward from the Spanish port of Delba (Palos)into the ocean of darkness an fog.?They returned after a long absence with much booty from a strange and curious land.?It is evident that people of Muslim origin are known to have accompanied Columbus and subsequent Spanish explorers to the New World.
The last Muslim stronghold in Spain, Granada, fell to the Christians in 1492 CE, just before the Spanish inquisition was launched. To escape persecution, many non-Christians fled or embraced Catholicism. At least two documents imply the presence of Muslims in Spanish America before 1550 CE. Despite the fact that adecree issued in 1539 CE, by Charles V, King of Spain, forbade the grandsons of Muslims who had been burned at the stake to migrate to the West Indies. This decree was ratified in 1543 CE, and an order for the expulsion of all Muslims from overseas Spanish territories was subsequently published. Many references on the Muslim arrival in the Americas are available. They are summarized in the following notes:

Historic Documents
l. A Muslim historian and geographer Abul-Hassan Ali Ibn Al-Hussain Al-Masudi(871 - 957 CE) wrote in his book Buruj Adh-dhahab wa Maadin al-Jawhar?The Meadows of Gold and Quarries of Jewels) that during the rule of the Muslim Caliph of Spain Abdullah Ibn Muhammad (888 - 912 CE), a Muslim navigator Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad of Cordoba,Spain sailed from Delba (Palos) in 889 CE, crossed the Atlantic,reached an unknown territory (Ard Majhoola) and returned with fabulous treasures. In Al-Masudi's map of the world there is a large area in theocean of darkness and fog (the Atlantic ocean) which he referred to as the unknown territory (the Americas).
2. A Muslim historian Abu Bakr Ibn Umar Al-Gutiyya narrated that during the reign of the Muslim Caliph of Spain, Hisham II (976 -1009 CE), another Muslim navigator Ibn Farrukh of Granada sailed from Kadesh (February 999 CE) into the Atlantic, landed in Gando (Great Canary Islands) visiting King Guanariga, and continued westward where he saw and named two islands, Capraria and Pluitana. He arrived back in Spain in May 999 CE.
3. Columbus sailed from Palos (Delba), Spain. He was bound for Gomera (Canary Islands) - Gomera is an Arabic wordmeaning small firebrand?- there he fell in love with Beatriz Bobadilla, daughter of the first captain General of the island (the family name Bobadilla is derived from the Arab Islamic name Abouabdilla). Nevertheless, the Bobadilla clan was not easy to ignore.Another Bobadilla (Francisco), later as the royal commissioner,put Columbus in chains and transferred him from Santo Domingo back to Spain (November 1500 CE). The Bobadilla family was related to Abbadid dynasty of Seville (1031 -1091 CE).
On October 12, 1492 CE, Columbus landed on a little island in the Bahamas that was called Guanahani by the natives. Renamed San Salvador by Columbus, Guanahani is derived from Mandinka and modified Arabic words. Guana (Ikhwana) means brothers?and Hani is an Arabic name. Therefore the original name of the island was Hani Brothers.?[Click here for corrupted names of Arabic origin, such as those starting with Guad-, al-, Medina and others.]
Ferdinand Columbus, the son of Christopher, wrote about the blacks seen by his father in Honduras: the people who live farther east of Pointe Cavinas, as far as CapeGracios a Dios, are almost black in color.?At the same time in this very same region, lived a tribe of Muslim natives known as Almamy.In Mandinka and Arabic languages Almamy was the designation of Al-Imam?or Al-Imamu,?the person who leads the Prayer, or in some cases, the chief of the community, and/or a member of the Imami Muslim community.
4. A renowned American historian and linguist Leo Weiner of Harvard University, in his book Africa and The Discovery of America (1920)wrote that Columbus was well aware of the Mandinka presence in the NewWorld and that the West African Muslims had spread throughout the Caribbean, Central, South and North American territories, including Canada, where they were trading and inter marrying with the Iroquois and Algonquin Indians....

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